Blade Or Cavity Back Irons, Which Are For Your


Blade Or Cavity Back Irons, Which Are For Your?

Once upon a time, there were simply?irons. We now call these vestiges of history &25589;lade?irons&26774;orged from thin blocks of carbon steel that were shaped by hand and/or machine, then plated with chrome. If you did not hit the golf ball squarely with them, you felt a distinctly unpleasant vibration down to your bones that was generally followed by a bad shot and, even worse, four-letter words. But irons have evolved, and the choices are multiplying.

Older golf irons, blade design, were harder to hit, but along the way club makers learned that the head could be shaped to put more metal low and behind the hitting area for easier shot making. Those blades gained the nickname &25608;uscle backs,?and were an instant success. These blades were also more expensive, as the forging and shaping processes were time- and labor-intensive. Strictly speaking, it may be wrong to call any modern iron a &25589;lade.?Original blades were very thin and hard.

Golf manufacturers not only sought cheaper ways to produce irons, but also ways to make them easier to hit. When club manufacturers successfully produced irons using a casting process&26796;here molten metal could be formed in a mold&26778;t found an economical and new method of shaping irons. Cavity backs carried the muscle back a step further, allowing weight to be moved to the base or edges of the head with equal ease.

Cavity-back design allowed manufacturers to create an iron that did not require a perfect strike to make an acceptable shot. This &25595;orgiveness,?created by moving more weight to the periphery of the iron head, meant bad shots were neither as far offline nor suffered as much of a distance penalty as the old blades. In addition, by moving more weight to the sole of the club, cavity backs made it easier to get the ball off the ground. This meant an average player could use less loft and, thus, hit the ball farther. The term &25596;ame improvement clubs?became the most popular name for cavity-back designs.

Blades, however, retained certain advantages. A well-hit blade shot provided more feedback to good players, allowing them to better gauge how well they were striking the ball. Blades also allowed a player to shape shots better than cavity-back designs, which became more popular in part because the ball naturally went straighter. Blades gained the nickname &25613;layer&25263; clubs,?because the best players preferred the extra control and feedback. In addition, visit our website blades often had more graceful lines than the sometimes chunky cavity backs.

These differences, however, are no longer as clear as they once were. Forged blades are now made with shallow cavities to improve accuracy, and cavity backs are being made that provide increased feel and maneuverability. In fact, when manufacturers unveil new club designs, it can be difficult to see any major difference between their player&25263; clubs and their game-improvement designs. The once-clear divide between blades and cavity backs is vanishing as the two join and form easier to hit irons.
Which Style Is Best For You?
Depending on where your game scores are at you may decide to use the game improving qualities of a cavity back iron for the forgiveness they check more offer while you improve your swing mechanics. But, if your swing mechanics are sound or you want the feeling of a pure ball strike then blades may be your choice. Either way, do your research and the decision will probably turn out to be an easy one to make!

Birthday With Teddy Bear


Birthday With Teddy Bear

What little girl does not have a special spot in her heart for her preferred teddy bear? I know our share here little angel calls her teddy bear her closest friend and loves this bear more than life itself. It has been her constant companion since she was the ripe maturity of six weeks old and has calmed her through hurt feelings, nightmares, and new houses, in addition to fights with her brother and scolds from mom and dad. Her teddy bear is her friend, protector, defender, and confident. For this reason it should come as no surprise that a favorite birthday party idea for our little girl was a birthday in which bears reigned supreme.

The first thought that many have when considering Teddy Bears and a birthday party with Teddy, as its main theme is likely the Construct a Bear Workshop or other similar businesses. While these are great for parties and give each girl going to a little something to take home with her, they are likewise quite expensive. If you would like to spend a little less there are heaps of options. If you would like to make all of her friends want you as moms and dads, the Construct a Bear party plan really is grand. Keep in mind though that if you think she’s going to abandon her lifelong companion (unfluffed and coming unstuffed teddy bear numero uno) for the Develop a Bear bear think again. She will right now have two bears sharing her nighttime cuddles trust me on this.

Another great thought for teddy bear parties is of a slumber or pajama party with teddy bears having a place of honor with each and all of the extremely important guests. Teddy bears Check our website and various stuffed animals are frequently security blankets of sorts for adolescent girls in nerve-wracking circumstances or that are clear of home. They help smooth the transition and make the night go better in spite of the fact that some girls are ashamed of their need for their fluffy friends. By inviting your invited guests and their favorite teddy bear or sleepy time companion you are inviting them to bring their security and a touch of home together with them. This’ll help calm scared children and make a night clear of home less frightening.

A Teddy Bear tea party is the one other good way to go. Teddy bears share everything with their human friends; it makes perfect sense that they will also share teatime. You ought to decorate this tea as any other tea with flowers, the tea set, and have a seat for teddy bear alongside every little girl in attendence. If you want to be extremely fancy you can have place cards to assign seating for bears and girls along with mitts and hats for the young girls to wear during the celebrations. Food should be finger food such as teacakes and cookies, finger sandwiches, and punch in teacups obviously. You will need to take photographs of these girls in their Sunday best having tea with their best friends and send them home in relic frames. This will be a party to remember and a lot of fun for the children and parents. Just remember to wipe the crumbs from Teddy’s face so that he is ready for his close-up and have a world of fun.

Bilberry Extract Is A Powerful Antioxidant That Strengthens Veins


Bilberry Extract Is A Powerful Antioxidant That Strengthens Veins

Bilberry extract is taken from the Vaccinium myrtillus, or bilberry, a small blue berry that has been used traditionally for the this website treatment of conditions now known to be due to inflammation and the action of free radicals on the body.

Among these is atherosclerosis, or hardening of the arteries, caused by the free radical oxidation of the low density lipids that carry cholesterol around the bloodstream, and that cause deposition of fatty plaques on the arterial walls and eventually constricts them to a stage that can cause heart failure or a stroke, depending on whether the arteries are close to the heart or in the brain.

However, additional to treating this condition, bilberry has also traditionally been used for the treatment of varicose veins and also for certain eye conditions. In fact it was during the Second World war that the Royal Air Force in Britain received reports from pilots that their night vision improved after eating bilberries. Not only their vision, but the restoration of night vision after exposure to glare.

This was extremely important to war-time pilots who had to be able to rapidly adapt their vision to fly their plane after exposure to searchlights and explosive detonations. That is the reason for anything that appeared to promote this essential adaptation to be reported.

The pharmacology of these effects have been found to be due to the anthocyanosides in which bilberries are particularly rich. Anthocyanosides consist of share this site an anthocyanaidin backbone, to which one of either arabinose, galactose or glucose can be bound. Since bilberry contains five of these anthocyanadins, then there are fifteen different anthocyanosides in the fruit concentrate.

The area of the retina that appears to control night vision, and the transition from day to night sight, is called the epithelium which is connected with purple vision. Anthocyanosides seem to have an affinity for this part of the retina, and in so doing plays an important part in this type of vision, specifically night vision although it is also beneficial in improving day vision.

Although bilberry also contains vitamins A and C, hydroquinone and tannins, it is the anthocyanosides that provide it with its unique antioxidant properties, and also its effect upon collagen fibers. It can cross-link collagen fibers to help overcome weaknesses in the connective tissues such as cartilage, tendons and the walls of blood vessels.

Its effect as an antioxidant is to prevent the cleavage of collagen by the cyzymes that are secreted by leukocytes generated by the immune system. By preventing histamine release, and release of prostaglandins and other proteins and cells mobilized during the immune inflammatory response to the detection of foreign invasion into human tissue, anthocyanosides can help to reduce inflammation and to protect against other extreme reactions of the immune system that can harm the organism it evolved to protect.

The most powerful property of anthocyanosides are their antioxidant properties: perhaps even its only property once all of the conditions it helps to protect against are fully understood. An antioxidant combines with free radicals and destroys them. Free radicals are particularly vile chemical entities that require an electron to make them stable, and they take this electron from the nearest source. This can result in oxidation and destruction of many bodily tissues leading to premature aging, atherosclerosis, eye damage and many other problems that result from the destruction of body cells and tissue.

The various constituents that make up bilberry act in concert to scavenge the free radicals and increase the supply of oxygen to the eye. The benefits of this are in helping to prevent cataracts and glaucoma, the latter due to the effect of the anthocyanoside cross-linking effect on the structure of the collagen in the eye. It can also help in cases of macular degeneration that affects the central area of the retina which might be due to the same property of there glucoside.

Moving away from the eyes and back to the vascular system, the collagen cross-linking properties of the flavonoids, which is what anthocyanosides basically are, can help to repair damaged vein tissue by strengthening the vein walls themselves, and also by providing support for the cell membranes, or outer layers of the cells.

This in turn builds up more strength in the vein tissue below the outside walls and contributes to an overall reduction in the weakness of the vein. This in turn enables it better to withstand the internal pressure put upon it by the failure of the valve that created the problem. In this way bilberries can be used to help repair the damage done by varicose veins and improve the function of the vein in visit more information returning blood to the heart from the extremities of the legs and also to help reduce the pain and swelling of varicose veins.

In addition to these beneficial effects on the vascular system and the eyes, bilberry can also help to decrease the permeability of the blood-brain barrier to pollutants, drugs and other undesirable chemicals by improving the resistance of the capillaries in the brain to the transfer of such substances through their walls. It does so by preventing the collagen of the capillaries in the brain being degraded either by enzymes or other agents, Also, by helping to strengthen that collagen structure so that it becomes more impermeable to the larger molecules that form the pollutants.

A lesser known constituent of bilberry is myrtillin, an anthocyanoside monoglucoside that is also available in all green plants, that possesses anti-glycemic properties. What this means is that it can reduce hyperglycemia and glycosurea, and so reduce blood sugar without reducing the blood sugar level to dangerously low levels. In other words it is an ideal insulin substitute.

Native Americans used green plants for teas for centuries and were free from diabetes until the came into contact with Europeans and adopted their dietary habits. Although the case has to be proved, it appears highly likely that it was the myrtillin that kept them free from a condition that affects so many other races.

Irrespective of that, however, it is for its powerful antioxidant effect that bilberry finds its best use, and also its effects on varicose veins. However, all of the above health benefits that bilberry provides, can likely be laid at the door of the combined antioxidant effect of its vitamin C content and the anthocyanosides ?including the glucoside myrtillin.

Ein Probelauf der vertanen Chancen


Zwei Monate sind seit der abschließenden Verkehrsverhandlung vergangen. Erst jetzt wurde die Entscheidung über die Probephase auf der Mariahilfer Straße vorgelegt. Zwei Monate, in denen die Unternehmer in den Bezirken Neubau und Mariahilf im Unklaren gelassen wurden, wie der ab Mitte August startende Probebetrieb ablaufen soll und auf welche Auswirkungen auf den eigenen Betrieb man sich einstellen muss. Immerhin sind mehrere hundert Zustellfahrten pro Tag neu zu organisieren. Es ist daher völlig unverständlich, dass man den Betrieben nicht mehr Zeit gegeben hat, sich ausreichend vorzubereiten. Knapp 9000 Wirtschaftstreibende im 6. und 7. Bezirk haben nur mehr vier Wochen Zeit, um neue Lieferkonzepte zu erarbeiten und Kunden und Geschäftspartner über die neuen Zufahrtmöglichkeiten und die künftige Erreichbarkeit zu informieren.

Umliegende Bereiche werden unter zusätzlichem Verkehr leiden
Die Auswirkungen des nun vorliegenden Verkehrskonzepts sind erheblich. Geänderte Ladezonen und verkürzte Ladezeiten, mehrfach gedrehte Einbahnen, engere und damit für größere Kfz ungeeignete Kreuzungsradien und der komplette Wegfall der Querungsmöglichkeiten sind die größten Eingriffe in das Gesamtverkehrskonzept, die es in Wien je gegeben hat. Verkehrsexperten haben erhoben, dass sich Fahrzeiten und Wege in Mariahilf und Neubau um durchschnittlich 60 Prozent verlängern werden. Gleichzeitig verlagert sich ein Großteil des Verkehrs auf Gürtel und Zweierlinie – beides Strecken, die bereits heute ausgelastet sind. Während künftig also Radfahrer und Fußgänger über die Mariahilfer Straße flanieren, werden die umliegenden Bereiche unter dem zusätzlichen Verkehr leiden.

Berechtigte Anliegen werden ignoriert
Dass diese Befürchtungen nicht nur von der Wirtschaft geteilt werden, zeigt die große Zahl an Institutionen, Organisationen und angrenzenden Bezirken, die gegen die Neugestaltung Einsprüche erhoben haben. Kaum einer dieser Einsprüche fand im Probekonzept Berücksichtigung. Den berechtigten Anliegen nicht Rechnung zu tragen, ist eine vertane Chance. Erschwerend kommt hinzu, dass unklar ist, wie lange die Probephase überhaupt dauert, dass keine Kriterien für deren Evaluierung aufgestellt wurden und dass offen ist, welcher Personenkreis in die Evaluierung einbezogen werden soll.

Bizarre Behaviour Behind Seo Outsourcing To India


Bizarre Behaviour Behind Seo Outsourcing To India

One often laughs at the way organizations tumble over each other to share here book their date with an SEO Outsourcing India services provider. Though this laughter is genuine and at times things really become quite cartoonish, there is a serious undertone camouflaged beneath all this. It is indeed bizarre to notice the way these organizations scamper for space, but for those who know the credentials SEO Outsourcing India service providers carry know how important it is to plan their meeting lest they blow their chances away.

Outsourcing SEO to India is no mean task these days. Every known vendor in this part of Asia is already drowned with work. They work on so many projects concurrently that their paralegals and secretaries make it evident straight away they do not have any time to even consult on a project, leave side working on it full time. They are so involved with their work that they focus more on doing the current projects in hand well rather than getting into things they have no control over or cannot manage properly. This makes them envious entities. It makes them very sought after. Everyone is bumbling with calls and wondering how does one go about hiring their services and ensuring an appointment is sapped up instantly.

SEO Outsourcing to India is also laden with benefits galore. Clients across the globe know it. They know the benefits that will suddenly come pouring into their lap the click more details moment they work with an Indian website optimization services vendor. They work accordingly. They work to ensure they add value to the project and work to take the site right to the top of the search engine rankings labyrinth. This is the sole motto they strive toward achieving.

As far as fan reaction is concerned, that too is a sight for those who revel in laughter. It is unbelievable to see the level till which companies are ready to stoop down to just to get a bite of this frenzy. They spread false information, tell people these companies are busy and try to remove as much clutter as they can in the quest to find the right services provider. This also includes inflicting a lot of bad PR over the web on others.

In the meanwhile, they are busy setting up their field. They pull all strings to get that coveted service which eventually accounts for their website reaching the top swiftly. They get down to task and discuss their project inside out articulating every point they have in mind to ensure their website makes the cut. Their inputs get duly considered and the way in which the website comes out optimized is again a terrific sight to sit back and enjoy.

All in all, in case you want a well optimized website and see that bookings are coming closed, you need to ponder your options very seriously. You have to get hold of an Indian vendor, a thespian involved in the business since times immemorial. The moment that takes place, magic happens.

Black Cat Figurines


Black Cat Figurines

Black cat figurines are very collectible and are made from many different substances. Black cats were always considered to be bad luck if they crossed your path, but black cat figurines are good luck with collectors as some of them have turned out to be very valuable. Some black cat figurines can fetch in the thousands, depending on who produced the figurine.

There are various companies that produce cat figurines today and those that produced them years ago. When you are looking for more details black cat figurines, one thing that you might look for is the name of the company that produced the figure. Some companies, such as those that were produced in Occupied Japan, can fetch some money on the secondary market today. These black cat figurines are usually made from ceramic or porcelain.

If you are looking for some serious collectibles when it comes to black cat figurines, you should take a look at ancient figurines. The ancient Egyptians worshipped cats and ancient black cat figurines can end up being priceless. You have to be able to ascertain the value of the figurine which can be done by taking it to an antiques collector. Such figurines are often made of alabaster or carved.

Modern black cat figurines are usually made from glass or ceramic and are poured into a mold. Once the material has hardened, the figurine is taken from the mold. If it is ceramic, it is then painted, glazed and placed in a kiln where the object hardens and the glaze takes on a shiny click more details appearance. Most black cat figurines are made from ceramic.

Other black cat check more figurines are made from wood. Wooden figurines are usually manufactured by molds, but in some cases you can see them actually hand carved. Others are machine carved into the figure of a cat. Then they are dipped in paint and their eyes glued on. This is can be done by machine or by hand, depending on where the figurine comes from.

Collecting figurines modeled after animals is a timeless collectible and dates back centuries. If you know someone who likes cats, cat figurines can be a nice gift and a great collectible for them. Many people begin collecting black cat figurines as children and then proceed with this fascination into adulthood. In some cases, if the cat figurines are extremely rare or are antique, they can be a good investment as antiques, unlike ordinary objects, not only hold their value but often appreciate in value. If you manage to get some cat figurines that are antiques, chances are that their value will go up as the years wear on.

If you are thinking of collecting black cat figurines, you should look for those that are rare finds that are the most affordable for you. You can take a look on auction sites as well as a number of sites that animal figurines and find the most affordable as well as collectible black cat figurines.

Biomagnetic Therapy The History Of Healing With Magnets


Biomagnetic Therapy – The History Of Healing With Magnets

At first glance, it may seem that using magnets for healing is a recent phenomenon, but using magnets for their healing and regenerative properties has been reported around the world since ancient times. Records from various great ancient civilizations click this website exist, which show that they recognized the healing properties of magnets. A Chinese medical text dating from 2000 BC, the Yellow Emperors Book, describes the use of magnetic stones to correct imbalances in the Qi, or lifeforce. Writings from ancient Egypt record the therapeutic use of magnets by Egyptian doctors. One famous story from ancient Egypt, relates how Cleopatra regularly wore magnetic jewelry, or a magnetic stone around her forehead, in order to preserve her beauty and vitality.

The ancient Greeks also utilized magnets for therapeutic health purposes. Hippocrates, the father of medicine, explored the therapeutic properties of lodestone, a naturally occurring magnetic mineral. Around 200 BC, it is recorded that the famous Greek physician Galen discovered that the application of magnets to the body could alleviate pain caused by various disorders and diseases.

The early centuries of the common era provided continued documentation of the healing power of magnetism. During the 1st century AD, physicians from China documented the effects on the body and diseases related to variations read here in the earth’s magnetic field, using sensitive compasses to monitor these subtle variations. Around 1000 AD, a Persian physician recorded the utlization of magnets to treat various disorders, including gout and muscle spasms.

Around the 16th century, the number of studies and experiments regarding the use of biomagnetic therapy by European physicians began to increase, as more successes were reported. In 1530, a respected Swiss physician, Paracelsus, documented successes with a variety of treatments using magnetic fields. Eventually, he was removed from his position as Professor of Medicine at Basle University, because of his determination to promoting science over religion in relation to medical treatments. In the 17th century, the renowned English court physician Gilbert recorded the health benefits of magnets. During the mid-18th century, Maximillian Hell, a Jesuit priest, who devoted his life to the study of science, mathematics, and astronomy, successfully experimented with treating patients with new, more powerful, carbon-steel magnets, which were shaped to the area of the body to be treated.

In 1777, Abbot Lenoble, a member of France’s Royal Society of Medicine, conducted a detailed study of magnetic therapy. He produced and tested therapeutic magnets, recommending the application of magnetic jewelry to the wrist and chest. He replicated successful results in dozens of cases of biomagnetic therapy, including the treatment of toothaches, arthritis, stomach click this site spasms, and convulsions. During the 19th century, the number of scientific studies continued to increase including studies by Eydam in 1843, Charot and Renard in 1878, Westphal and Gangee in 1878, Mueller in 1879, and Benedict in 1885.

Since the mid-20th century, a large number of biomagnetic studies have been conducted in Japan, which have repeatedly demonstrated the effectiveness of magnetic fields in the treatment of various disorders. Magnetic jewelry is sold throughout Japan, Europe, and China for the relief of pain and joint stiffness, as well as for improved circulatory function. Many biomagnetic devices sold in Japan are registered with the Japan Welfare Ministry as official medical devices. To obtain this registration, devices undergo clinical tests at accredited health facilities to verify their effectiveness.

At the current time, Western physicians and researchers are achieving positive results using electromagnetic fields to treat damage to tissue, including ulcers and severe burns. Soft tissue, joints, and bone injuries have reported to have been responsive to these treatments. Doctors in russia regularly utilize magnets to accelerate the healing process after surgery, and to improve circulation.

Although magnetic therapy is still generally considered an „alternative“ medicine, particularly in the West, its acceptance as a viable option for pain relief and improved overall health and vitality, has grown considerably in recent years. A study of the treatment’s long and detailed history, as well as the ever-increasing amount of positive anecdotal evidence by users of therapeutic magnets, points to a significant connection between magnets and health.

Black Dog Tags Along With A Few General Information Concerning Where To Buy Them


Black Dog Tags Along With A Few General Information Concerning Where To Buy Them

Black dog tags were first invented during the Vietnam War. These were issued and allocated to the share this website constituents of the Special Operation Forces who operated behind enemy lines.

Black dog tags were inventively created during the Vietnam War. These were dispensed and dispersed to the members of the Special Operation Forces who operated behind enemy lines. Because of this, black dog tags are maintained bound with the Vietnam War – where many of Vietnamese soldiers died. At present, black dog tags are not only symbol of the terrible episode but a fashion statement, as well.

A Fresh Fashion
From famous action stars to usual teenagers, personalized dog tags have change into great fashionable accessories for many. With brilliant appreciative features and functions, these set the innovative craze for people from all walks of life. It all started with the military dog tags that were worn by company members or soldiers before for description. authentic dog tags have evolved into trendy, yet still functional, single dog tag. These days, black dog tags are the latest version created providing unconventional choice for the mass industry.

Unusual Functionality
There were originally pretty much the typical military dog tags around, but currently the black dog tags are at hand – giving consumers with another alternative. Black dog tags have smooth and refined look, which bring about a whole new element in the military dog tag inventory. Black dog tags are made of stainless steel and are covered with durable black powder coat. This presents the tags a matte finish.

The black dog tags are made appealing with a 4.5 inch black epoxy chain Check our website joined to the 24 inch black epoxy dog tag chain. One awesome gain from these is that there is no dazzle, unlike the common military dog tags in abrupt stainless steel. The atypical color of black dog tags make fashionable accessories for any sports event. In such events, black dog tags are competent to wear since they do not glare – that may cause distractions and accidents.

Where To Locate Them
You may notice that black dog tags are all over different types of commercial. In famous newspapers, big shot magazines, television and many other medium choices, these black dog tags are usually promoted alongside with fashion figures and celebrities. With the improvement in technology, the innovative media is one agent that made black dog tags became acclaimed and most sought-after accessory.

Aside from the retail stores featuring these items, online stores played an important part in making black dog tags more accessible to many customers. Also, many used to be not versed in with black dog tags considering the basic blot less steel military dog tags were the predominant style. Now with the convenience of online shopping, you may easily go through carelessly over the extensive
range of items to choose from.

Internet stores offers you the alternative to personalize black dog tags with your custom text. Be sure to purchase black dog tags from the authentic online stores that live up to the terms stated on their websites.

Birds And Animals In Indian Art


Birds And Animals In Indian Art

Jahangir, who was the fourth Mughal emperor, was a lover of beauty. That is the reason why artifacts, which are created by hands observe the nature as a the work of god.

His memoirs, which are commonly known as Tuzuk-I-Jahangiri or Jahangirnama, are as much an album of his aesthetic experiences as a chronicle of his reign. With his keen sensibility, these experiences were a permanent source of joy for him where both nature and beauty were preserved through the brush of his artists.

Jahangir was also a naturalist of the first order, with a strong curiosity for facts. He maintained a rich menagerie and an aviary, manned by expert officials and a team of workers under his personal supervision. Regular records were kept of each individual specimen, as also such information as he desired to acquire. His investigations have been found to be of immense scientific value. The historian Henry Beveridge opined that Jahangir would been a happier man had he been the head of a museum of natural history.

The zebra, which is also known a equus grevyi, was first brought into India at Jahangir’s court in 1621. Jahangir’s keen eye observed the intriguing correspondence between the pattern of stripes of the zebra and the tiger. The former is striped exactly like the black and yellow tiger, except that this is black and white. Since some doubted that the black stripes had been painted onto its body, which is why an inquiry was instantly ordered. After the inquiry, it became certain that the lines were created by the creator of the world.

Jahangir’s most valuable contribution to the knowledge of zoology was a portrait of the Mauritian bird, which was the dodo or raphus cucullatus. An important link in the evolution of ducks, which are flightless, are primitive birds that had become extinct by the end of the seventeenth century. This was thanks to the active gastronomic interest that has been taken into it by visiting European soldiers. Modern scholars wishing to know its features had to depend for a long time on a not very accurate drawing by the Flemish artist, Ronald Savery. This drawing was made at Amsterdam between 1626 and 1628, while the Mughal painting, which was attributed to the great Mughal artist read more Mansur, lay in oblivion.

Dr. A. Ivanov of St Petersburg discovered this drawing in the collection of this website the Institute of Oriental studies of the Russian Academy of Sciences. His paper created a sensation at the XII International Ornithological Congress at Helsinki in 1958, because this painting was found to be the most correct representation of the dodo. It was correctly made from a live specimen, which seems to have been presented to Jahangir by a foreign visitor. Professor Erwin Stresemann has dated this miniature to the last years of the emperor’s life when ill health had stopped his pen, and deprived the world of an eyewitness account of an exceedingly curious bird by one of the most interesting figures in Indian history and a naturalist par excellence.

Black Jack Smatt Merchant Pirate (circa 1660)


Black Jack Smatt Merchant -pirate (circa 1660)

Dating back to 17th century ,Port Royal used to be the grazing ground of European backed privateering spendthrifts .With its ostentatious displays of opulence and a population consisting of street scum ,whores and cutthroats, Port Royal got degraded in morals and anarchy began to reign supreme. It was at this time that governments abandoned issuing letters of marquee against Spanish treasure fleets. Soon Port Royal, The Wickedest City on
Earth or otherwise called The Sodom of the New World, became a breeding ground of pirates. Piracy grew as a lucrative occupation and soon Port Royal gained reputation as the Land of Pirates .It was at this time that Jack Smatt, the marauder, made his arrival on the scene.

Jack Smatt arrived in Port Royal around 1660 in order to take advantage of the booming merchant trading between Europe and the New World. Insatiate with his accomplishments Black Jack, as he soon became known, joined the band wagon to pursue the more lucrative profession of privateering ?the warranted attack on enemy ships. His unrivalled exploits in this notorious industry and hunger for supremacy eventually led him to the world of buccaneering.

Soon lady luck was smiling on Jack Smatt .But the lure of wealth would not elude Black Jack. Although Jack&25263; coffers were full, he would not rest.Meanwhile, off the Panama coast, a large Spanish galleon set sail and it was read here passing through his territory. This massive ship of around 200 tones was originally sent to protect the Spanish Maine, but was in for trouble. The stage was set for the world to witness one of the greatest heists at sea.

As the pirates drew near with Jack at its attacking helm, the Spanish vessel signaled for surrender. But the pirates and jack were flabbergasted when the merchant ship&25263; cannons roared .It was not to be for the ill-fated liner as a sudden gust of wind caused the shot to miss the target. It is alleged that it was at Check our website this same moment that the pirate crew used their grappling hooks to pull the ships together. The pirates immediately took control of the vessel and subdued the crew. This astounding feat made Jack&25263; name firmly etched in the history of buccaneering.

A Casanova to the core, Black Jack was infamous for his lascivious acts and was really a womanizer .He would binge on rum and was well-known as a rum drinker. During that time, rationing of rum was withdrawn by the ruling Crown. Jack Smatt took advantage of this situation and used rum as a bait to lure his crew .Soon rum became a part of the pirate lifestyle. Rum became such an essential part of a pirate&25263; life that any lack this website of availability would lead to conflict among them.

The period of 1650 ?1740, when pirates flourished, was known as The Golden Era.Smatt even concocted a special blend, created from rums carefully culled from the finest distilleries in Jamaica of the time. It went on to make a name for itself later by instilling in people the belief that anyone getting even an ounce would be showered with immense fortune.

An earthquake razed Port Royal in 1692 and the legend of Black Jack Smatt disappeared along with many other inhabitants of the city. It was deemed an act of Providence against the wayward lifestyle of the riffraff there. Descendents of Black Jack Smatt still live in Jamaica continuing to make their living from the sea. Ernie Smatt, once a world water-ski Champion is one of Smatt&25263; most notable descendants. Nowadays, Ernie Smatt controls much of the maritime tourism industry in the Caribbean and he operates from his own hotel in the Cutlass Bay.